Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2014-09-29 and last amended on 2014-09-19. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Exploitation
  •  (1) For the purposes of sections 279.01 to 279.03, a person exploits another person if they cause them to provide, or offer to provide, labour or a service by engaging in conduct that, in all the circumstances, could reasonably be expected to cause the other person to believe that their safety or the safety of a person known to them would be threatened if they failed to provide, or offer to provide, the labour or service.

  • Marginal note:Factors

    (2) In determining whether an accused exploits another person under subsection (1), the Court may consider, among other factors, whether the accused

    • (a) used or threatened to use force or another form of coercion;

    • (b) used deception; or

    • (c) abused a position of trust, power or authority.

  • Marginal note:Organ or tissue removal

    (3) For the purposes of sections 279.01 to 279.03, a person exploits another person if they cause them, by means of deception or the use or threat of force or of any other form of coercion, to have an organ or tissue removed.

  • 2005, c. 43, s. 3;
  • 2012, c. 15, s. 2.
Marginal note:Hostage taking
  •  (1) Everyone takes a person hostage who — with intent to induce any person, other than the hostage, or any group of persons or any state or international or intergovernmental organization to commit or cause to be committed any act or omission as a condition, whether express or implied, of the release of the hostage —

    • (a) confines, imprisons, forcibly seizes or detains that person; and

    • (b) in any manner utters, conveys or causes any person to receive a threat that the death of, or bodily harm to, the hostage will be caused or that the confinement, imprisonment or detention of the hostage will be continued.

  • Marginal note:Hostage-taking

    (2) Every person who takes a person hostage is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

    • (a) if a restricted firearm or prohibited firearm is used in the commission of the offence or if any firearm is used in the commission of the offence and the offence is committed for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with, a criminal organization, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of

      • (i) in the case of a first offence, five years, and

      • (ii) in the case of a second or subsequent offence, seven years;

    • (a.1) in any other case where a firearm is used in the commission of the offence, to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of four years; and

    • (b) in any other case, to imprisonment for life.

  • Marginal note:Subsequent offences

    (2.1) In determining, for the purpose of paragraph (2)(a), whether a convicted person has committed a second or subsequent offence, if the person was earlier convicted of any of the following offences, that offence is to be considered as an earlier offence:

    • (a) an offence under this section;

    • (b) an offence under subsection 85(1) or (2) or section 244 or 244.2; or

    • (c) an offence under section 220, 236, 239, 272 or 273, subsection 279(1) or section 344 or 346 if a firearm was used in the commission of the offence.

    However, an earlier offence shall not be taken into account if 10 years have elapsed between the day on which the person was convicted of the earlier offence and the day on which the person was convicted of the offence for which sentence is being imposed, not taking into account any time in custody.

  • Marginal note:Sequence of convictions only

    (2.2) For the purposes of subsection (2.1), the only question to be considered is the sequence of convictions and no consideration shall be given to the sequence of commission of offences or whether any offence occurred before or after any conviction.

  • Marginal note:Non-resistance

    (3) Subsection 279(3) applies to proceedings under this section as if the offence under this section were an offence under section 279.

  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 40;
  • 1995, c. 39, s. 148;
  • 2008, c. 6, s. 31;
  • 2009, c. 22, s. 13.