Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2014-11-11 and last amended on 2014-09-19. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Obtaining carriage by false billing
  •  (1) Every one who, by means of a false or misleading representation, knowingly obtains or attempts to obtain the carriage of anything by any person into a country, province, district or other place, whether or not within Canada, where the importation or transportation of it is, in the circumstances of the case, unlawful is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Forfeiture

    (2) Where a person is convicted of an offence under subsection (1), anything by means of or in relation to which the offence was committed, on such conviction, in addition to any punishment that is imposed, is forfeited to Her Majesty and shall be disposed of as the court may direct.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 359.
Marginal note:Trader failing to keep accounts
  •  (1) Every one who, being a trader or in business,

    • (a) is indebted in an amount exceeding one thousand dollars,

    • (b) is unable to pay his creditors in full, and

    • (c) has not kept books of account that, in the ordinary course of the trade or business in which he is engaged, are necessary to exhibit or explain his transactions,

    is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

  • Marginal note:Saving

    (2) No person shall be convicted of an offence under this section

    • (a) where, to the satisfaction of the court or judge, he

      • (i) accounts for his losses, and

      • (ii) shows that his failure to keep books was not intended to defraud his creditors; or

    • (b) where his failure to keep books occurred at a time more than five years prior to the day on which he was unable to pay his creditors in full.

  • R.S., c. C-34, s. 360.

Identity Theft and Identity Fraud

Definition of “identity information”

 For the purposes of sections 402.2 and 403, “identity information” means any information — including biological or physiological information — of a type that is commonly used alone or in combination with other information to identify or purport to identify an individual, including a fingerprint, voice print, retina image, iris image, DNA profile, name, address, date of birth, written signature, electronic signature, digital signature, user name, credit card number, debit card number, financial institution account number, passport number, Social Insurance Number, health insurance number, driver’s licence number or password.

  • 2009, c. 28, s. 10.
Marginal note:Identity theft
  •  (1) Everyone commits an offence who knowingly obtains or possesses another person’s identity information in circumstances giving rise to a reasonable inference that the information is intended to be used to commit an indictable offence that includes fraud, deceit or falsehood as an element of the offence.

  • Marginal note:Trafficking in identity information

    (2) Everyone commits an offence who transmits, makes available, distributes, sells or offers for sale another person’s identity information, or has it in their possession for any of those purposes, knowing that or being reckless as to whether the information will be used to commit an indictable offence that includes fraud, deceit or falsehood as an element of the offence.

  • Marginal note:Clarification

    (3) For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2), an indictable offence referred to in either of those subsections includes an offence under any of the following sections:

    • (a) section 57 (forgery of or uttering forged passport);

    • (b) section 58 (fraudulent use of certificate of citizenship);

    • (c) section 130 (personating peace officer);

    • (d) section 131 (perjury);

    • (e) section 342 (theft, forgery, etc., of credit card);

    • (f) section 362 (false pretence or false statement);

    • (g) section 366 (forgery);

    • (h) section 368 (use, trafficking or possession of forged document);

    • (i) section 380 (fraud); and

    • (j) section 403 (identity fraud).

  • Marginal note:Jurisdiction

    (4) An accused who is charged with an offence under subsection (1) or (2) may be tried and punished by any court having jurisdiction to try that offence in the place where the offence is alleged to have been committed or in the place where the accused is found, is arrested or is in custody. However, no proceeding in respect of the offence shall be commenced in a province without the consent of the Attorney General of that province if the offence is alleged to have been committed outside that province.

  • Marginal note:Punishment

    (5) Everyone who commits an offence under subsection (1) or (2)

    • (a) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or

    • (b) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • 2009, c. 28, s. 10.