Criminal Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46)

Act current to 2014-09-29 and last amended on 2014-09-19. Previous Versions

Marginal note:Definitions
  •  (1) In this section and sections 254.1 to 258.1,

    “analyst”

    « analyste »

    “analyst” means a person designated by the Attorney General as an analyst for the purposes of section 258;

    “approved container”

    « contenant approuvé »

    “approved container” means

    • (a) in respect of breath samples, a container of a kind that is designed to receive a sample of the breath of a person for analysis and is approved as suitable for the purposes of section 258 by order of the Attorney General of Canada, and

    • (b) in respect of blood samples, a container of a kind that is designed to receive a sample of the blood of a person for analysis and is approved as suitable for the purposes of section 258 by order of the Attorney General of Canada;

    “approved instrument”

    « alcootest approuvé »

    “approved instrument” means an instrument of a kind that is designed to receive and make an analysis of a sample of the breath of a person in order to measure the concentration of alcohol in the blood of that person and is approved as suitable for the purposes of section 258 by order of the Attorney General of Canada;

    “approved screening device”

    « appareil de détection approuvé »

    “approved screening device” means a device of a kind that is designed to ascertain the presence of alcohol in the blood of a person and that is approved for the purposes of this section by order of the Attorney General of Canada;

    “evaluating officer”

    « agent évaluateur »

    “evaluating officer” means a peace officer who is qualified under the regulations to conduct evaluations under subsection (3.1);

    “qualified medical practitioner”

    « médecin qualifié »

    “qualified medical practitioner” means a person duly qualified by provincial law to practise medicine;

    “qualified technician”

    « technicien qualifié »

    “qualified technician” means,

    • (a) in respect of breath samples, a person designated by the Attorney General as being qualified to operate an approved instrument, and

    • (b) in respect of blood samples, any person or person of a class of persons designated by the Attorney General as being qualified to take samples of blood for the purposes of this section and sections 256 and 258.

  • Marginal note:Testing for presence of alcohol or a drug

    (2) If a peace officer has reasonable grounds to suspect that a person has alcohol or a drug in their body and that the person has, within the preceding three hours, operated a motor vehicle or vessel, operated or assisted in the operation of an aircraft or railway equipment or had the care or control of a motor vehicle, a vessel, an aircraft or railway equipment, whether it was in motion or not, the peace officer may, by demand, require the person to comply with paragraph (a), in the case of a drug, or with either or both of paragraphs (a) and (b), in the case of alcohol:

    • (a) to perform forthwith physical coordination tests prescribed by regulation to enable the peace officer to determine whether a demand may be made under subsection (3) or (3.1) and, if necessary, to accompany the peace officer for that purpose; and

    • (b) to provide forthwith a sample of breath that, in the peace officer’s opinion, will enable a proper analysis to be made by means of an approved screening device and, if necessary, to accompany the peace officer for that purpose.

  • Marginal note:Video recording

    (2.1) For greater certainty, a peace officer may make a video recording of a performance of the physical coordination tests referred to in paragraph (2)(a).

  • Marginal note:Samples of breath or blood

    (3) If a peace officer has reasonable grounds to believe that a person is committing, or at any time within the preceding three hours has committed, an offence under section 253 as a result of the consumption of alcohol, the peace officer may, by demand made as soon as practicable, require the person

    • (a) to provide, as soon as practicable,

      • (i) samples of breath that, in a qualified technician’s opinion, will enable a proper analysis to be made to determine the concentration, if any, of alcohol in the person’s blood, or

      • (ii) if the peace officer has reasonable grounds to believe that, because of their physical condition, the person may be incapable of providing a sample of breath or it would be impracticable to obtain a sample of breath, samples of blood that, in the opinion of the qualified medical practitioner or qualified technician taking the samples, will enable a proper analysis to be made to determine the concentration, if any, of alcohol in the person’s blood; and

    • (b) if necessary, to accompany the peace officer for that purpose.

  • Marginal note:Evaluation

    (3.1) If a peace officer has reasonable grounds to believe that a person is committing, or at any time within the preceding three hours has committed, an offence under paragraph 253(1)(a) as a result of the consumption of a drug or of a combination of alcohol and a drug, the peace officer may, by demand made as soon as practicable, require the person to submit, as soon as practicable, to an evaluation conducted by an evaluating officer to determine whether the person’s ability to operate a motor vehicle, a vessel, an aircraft or railway equipment is impaired by a drug or by a combination of alcohol and a drug, and to accompany the peace officer for that purpose.

  • Marginal note:Video recording

    (3.2) For greater certainty, a peace officer may make a video recording of an evaluation referred to in subsection (3.1).

  • Marginal note:Testing for presence of alcohol

    (3.3) If the evaluating officer has reasonable grounds to suspect that the person has alcohol in their body and if a demand was not made under paragraph (2)(b) or subsection (3), the evaluating officer may, by demand made as soon as practicable, require the person to provide, as soon as practicable, a sample of breath that, in the evaluating officer’s opinion, will enable a proper analysis to be made by means of an approved instrument.

  • Marginal note:Samples of bodily substances

    (3.4) If, on completion of the evaluation, the evaluating officer has reasonable grounds to believe, based on the evaluation, that the person’s ability to operate a motor vehicle, a vessel, an aircraft or railway equipment is impaired by a drug or by a combination of alcohol and a drug, the evaluating officer may, by demand made as soon as practicable, require the person to provide, as soon as practicable,

    • (a) a sample of either oral fluid or urine that, in the evaluating officer’s opinion, will enable a proper analysis to be made to determine whether the person has a drug in their body; or

    • (b) samples of blood that, in the opinion of the qualified medical practitioner or qualified technician taking the samples, will enable a proper analysis to be made to determine whether the person has a drug in their body.

  • Marginal note:Condition

    (4) Samples of blood may be taken from a person under subsection (3) or (3.4) only by or under the direction of a qualified medical practitioner who is satisfied that taking the samples would not endanger the person’s life or health.

  • Marginal note:Failure or refusal to comply with demand

    (5) Everyone commits an offence who, without reasonable excuse, fails or refuses to comply with a demand made under this section.

  • Marginal note:Only one determination of guilt

    (6) A person who is convicted of an offence under subsection (5) for a failure or refusal to comply with a demand may not be convicted of another offence under that subsection in respect of the same transaction.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 254;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 36, c. 1 (4th Supp.), ss. 14, 18(F), c. 32 (4th Supp.), s. 60;
  • 1999, c. 32, s. 2(Preamble);
  • 2008, c. 6, s. 19.